Here you find everything related to the museo and our practice: texts, drawings, informations about the plastic bags, details on the places where we would like to land.
Lionel Wolberg’ text on museo aero solar, after a conversation with him in Ein Hawd:
“Cloud 9” is one of Bucky’s names for large geodesics that passively float (heated by the air), one of Bucky’s more forward looking suggestions. The motivation is to enable people to thrive, in comfortable homes (that happen to float), leaving the ground free to do what it does best, including grow food and purify water.
Tomas Saraceno is the world’s leading artist/engineer working on “Cloud 9” type projects today. He holds a number of critical patents and tours the world’s museums with provocative art works that evoke Cloud-9-type concepts.
“Museo aero solar,” by Tomas Saraceno, creates a cloud-9-type “flying museum” from plastic/nylon supermarket bags that participants bring to the event. The bags are “scotch” transparent-tape glued into a huge passive-solar-heated balloon. Calling it a “museum,” for those who enjoy modern/conceptual art, is an intriguing reference to the quality of the commercial artwork and design that goes into these throwaway bags, as well as the role these bags play in our lives (complex artifacts, the products of an intensive industrial process, used for about nine minutes then discarded). (Thanks Lionel !)
The world’s rubbish dump: a garbage tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan (The Independent)
Plastic bag bans around the world (BBC NEWS)
Plastic bags are blamed for growing environmental damage around the world. As the campaign to ban them gathers momentum, here is a snapshot of how countries around the world are tackling the issue.
In May 2003, South Africa set the pace by banning thinner plastic bags as well as imposing levies on thicker ones. Eritrea, Rwanda and Somalia banned plastic bags in 2005. Tanzania (including Zanzibar) introduced a total ban on the carriers in 2006. Kenya and Uganda in mid-2007 banned thinner plastic bags and imposed levies on thicker ones.
In the US, San Francisco became the first city to ban plastic bags from large supermarkets and pharmacies in March 2007. Several months later the rest of California passed laws requiring large supermarkets to take back and recycle plastic bags.
Taiwan banned free light-weight plastic bags in March 2003. China, whose consumers use 3bn plastic bags a day, announced in January 2008 it would ban shops from handing out free plastic bags from June 2008, and make production of ultra-thin carriers illegal. The announcement led to the closure of China’s largest plastic bag factory, in central Henan province. Australia announced plans in January 2008 to phase out the use of free plastic bags by the end of the year.
In Italy a levy was imposed on plastic bags a decade ago and an outright ban is due to be introduced by 2010. Since the Republic of Ireland passed a law in 2002 charging shoppers for every plastic bag, use of the carriers has plummeted by 90%. France plans to impose an outright ban by 2010. The country’s biggest supermarket groups, like Carrefour, voluntarily stopped distributing free plastic bags in March 2007. Belgium imposed a tax on free bags in July 2007. Switzerland requires supermarkets to charge shoppers for bags. In the UK, the town of Modbury in Devon became the first place in Britain to outlaw plastic bags in April 2007. Others plan to follow suit. In February 2008, one of Britain’s biggest retailers, Marks and Spencer, said it would stop handing out free plastic bags. Spain is planning to halve the consumption of plastic bags by 2009. In Germany and Holland, most supermarkets already charge for bags.
In 2002, Bangladesh imposed an outright ban on all thinner plastic bags in the capital, Dhaka, after they were found to have choked the drainage system during devastating floods. The measure triggered a revival of the local jute bag industry. In India Mumbai banned plastic bags in 2000 and the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh made thinner bags illegal in 2003.
A DIRECTORY OF HEAVIER-THAN-AIR FLYING MACHINES IN WESTERN EUROPE, 850 B.C. – 1783 A.D.
|DATE||PLACE||IDENTITY||FLYING MACHINE||DURATION / DISTANCE||SOURCES AND NOTES|
|ca. 850 B.C.||Troja Nova
|King Bladud||Wings attached to the arms||Fell onto the temple of Apollo and was killed.||Fabyan, The Chronicles (1516) f. viii. See also H.C. Levis, The British King Who Tried to Fly (London: 1919). Although Bladud is legendary, the story of his flight might have some factual basis.|
|4th century B.C.||Greece||Archytas of Tarentum (fl. c.400-350 B.C.).||A wooden dove, worked by ‘a current of air hidden and enclosed within it.’ Model.||
|Aulus Gellius, Noctium atticarum libri xx, X.12, pp. 8-10. Sometimes interpreted as a kite. ‘Dove’ should perhaps be read ‘small flying object.’ Cf. modern ‘big birds’ = airliners.|
|ca. 60 A.D.||Rome, Italy||Actor at a feast given by Nero||Feathered Arms||0/0 (fatal).||Suetonius, VI.xii.2., Such spectacles appear to have been comparatively frequent.|
|ca. 875||Andalusia, Spain||Abu’l-Kasim ‘Abbas b. Firnas||Feather-covered wings; body covered in feathers; no tail.||‘A considerable distance,’ alighting at his starting point.||al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain I, trans. de Gayangos (London: 1840) p. 148.|
|1002-3 or 1009-10||Nisabur, Arabia||al-Djawhari||Wings made of wood.||0/0. Threw himself from the top of a mosque and fell to the ground, where he was killed.||A. Zéki Pacha, ‘L’aviation chez lez Arabes,’ Bulletin de l’Institut égyptian 5th s., V (1991) pp. 92-101. See also ‘al-Djawhari,’ by L. Kopf, in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition (Leiden and London 1960, etc.).|
|ca. 1010||Malmesbury, England||Eilmer, a monk (ca. 980-1066)||Wings attached to the hands and feet; no tail.||More than a stadium (= 606.75 ft) from the top of a tower; broke his legs.||William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum anglorum I, ed. Stubbs (London: 1887) pp. 276-7.|
|1162||Constantinople||A Turk||Saillike wings made of ‘a long and large white garment, gathered into many pleats and foldings.’||He had planned to fly a furlong from a high tower but fell immediately to the base.||Nicetas Choniates, Historia (Basileae: 1557) p.60. Frequently quoted in Renaissance and later.|
|ca. 1232||Bologna, Italy||Buoncompagno, a Florentine||Wings (to be flapped by the arms?).||Flight abandoned at the last moment.||Salimbene de Adam, Cronica (13th century) I, ed. Scalia (Bari: 1966) pp. 109-110.|
|ca. 1250||Oxford, England||A friend of Roger Bacon||Flying boat or carriage, with wings flapped by turning a crank handle.||Presumably 0/0.||Roger Bacon, De mirabili postestate artis et naturae (ca. 1260) (Lutetia Parisiorum: 1542) f. 42.|
|ca. 1420||Venice||Giovanni da Fontana (ca. 1395-ca. 1455)||Model dove powered by a rocket.||Apparently about 100 ft. for each flight.||Fontana, Metrologum de pisce cane et volucre (ca. 1420), Bologna, Biblioteca universitaria, MS 2705, ff. 95-104.|
|ca. 1474||Nuremburg, Germany||Regiomontanus (1426-1476)||Mechanical fly made of iron.||A circuit around the dinner table.||Petrus Ramus, Scholarum mathmaticarum libri unus et triginta (Basileae: 1569) II.65. Although the account as given must be inaccurate, Regiomontanus may have experimented with some kind of flying model. (His other flying invention, an ‘eagle,’ was a kite.)|
|February 1498/99||Perugia, Italy||Giovanni Battista Danti (ca. 1477-1517).||Feathered wings on a structure of iron bars.||Trial flights over Lake Trasimeno, followed by a flight from a tower across the city square, crashing on to the roof of Saint Mary’s Church.||Cesare Alessi, Elogia civium perusinorum II (Romae: 1652) pp.204-7.|
|1505?||Monte Ceceri, Italy||Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)||Complex ornithopter.||
|Leonardo, Sul volo degli ucceli (1505) f. 18. Whether Leonardo ever undertook a flight with one of his ornithopters is uncertain. He could perhaps have succeeded in making a short glide, but in 1550 Cardanus wrote that Leonardo had tried ‘in vain.’|
|September 1507||Stirling Castle, Scotland||John Damian, an Italian adventurer||Wings made of hen feathers.||A very short distance from the walls of the Castle.||John Lesley, The Historie of Scotland (1568-70) (Edinburgh: 1830) p. 76.|
|1536||Troyes, France||Denis Bolori (d. 1536)||Wings flapped by a spring mechanism.||Two or three kilometers from the tower of the cathedral, ending in a fatal crash after a spring broke.||Pierre Jean Grosley, Oeuvres inédites I (Paris: 1812) pp. 84-88.|
|20 June 1540, 5:00 pm||Viseu, Portugal||João Torto||Two pairs of wings, of which the upper were larger than the lower, covered with calico, and joined by iron hoops lined with cloth. The flier was provided with a helmet representing an eagle’s head with open beak.||From the tower of the cathedral, intending to fly to the nearby Saint Matthew’s fields. Crashed onto a roof when the helmet slipped over his eyes and died a few days later.||Donna Maria de Gloriá, Probenda (17th century). Quoted in a number of later Portuguese books on aviation history, e.g. Albino Lapa, Aviaçao portuguesa (Lisboa: 1928) p. 12. According to Donna Maria, Torto had his attempt announced by the town crier on 1 June 1540.|
|ca. 1550||Tour de Nesles, Paris, France||An Italian||Wings, possibly of cloth.||According to the poet Augié Gailliard, he dropped ‘like a pig’ close to the base of the tower and broke his neck.||Pierre de Saint Romuald, Trésor cronolgique et historique III (Paris: 1669) p.583.|
|16th century||Saint Mark’s, Venice||
|J. Sturm, Linguae latinae resolvendae ratio (Argentiraci: 1581) p. 40. Probably imaginary.|
|16th century||Nuremburg, Germany||An old church cantor||Wings flapped by a mechanism including wheels.||“Flew here and there,’ but broke his arms and legs when the mechanism failed.||J. E. Burggravius, Achilles (Amsterodami: 1612) p. 52.|
|16th century||Normandy, France||A French laborer||Wings made of the two halves of a winnowing basket, with a coal shovel for a tail.||0/0. Fell from the top of a pear tree into a drain and broke his shoulder.||Philippe d’Alcripe, La nouvelle fabrique des excellens traits de vérité (16th century), ed. Gratet-Duplessis (Paris: 1853) pp. 178-9. Probably Fictional.|
|1557-8||San Yuste, Spain||Giovanni Torriano (d. 1580 or 1581)||Wooden sparrows (models).||A circuit around the dining roomof Charles V’s retreat near the monastery.||F. Strada, De bello belgico (Romae: 1632) p. 8.|
|ca. 1589||Conway, Wales||John Williams||Long coat used as a sail or wings.||Fell almost immediately on to a stone which emasculated him.||John Hacket, Scrinia reserata (London: 1693) p. 8. Williams was about seven years old at the time.|
|ca. 1600||Lucca, Italy||Paolo Guidotti (ca. 1150-1629)||Wings made of whalebone and covered with feathers; springs were used to give them curvature.||About 1/4 mile starting from ‘a height.’ Fell through a roof after his arms grew tired. Broke a thigh and was left in ‘a sorry plight.’||F. Baldinucci, Notizie de’ professori del disegno IV (Firenze: 1700) pp. 248-50.|
|ca. 1600||Venice||Giovanni Francesco Sagredo (ca. 1571-1620)||Wings based on those of a falcon.||Threw himself from a height and arrived ‘many yards from his starting point.’||Paris, Blbliotheque nationale, MS Latin 11195, f. 57.|
|ca. 1610||Calabria, Italy||
|Broke his legs on landing.||Tommaso Campanella, De sensu resrum (Francofurti: 1620) p. 280: ‘a certain Calabrian, a few years ago.’|
|ca. 1620||Schussenried, Germany||Kaspar Mohr, a monk (1575-1625)||Wings made from goosefeathers held together by whipcord.||Practice flights.||S.B. Wilhelm, ‘Schweikart und Mohr, zei schwäbische Flieger aus alter Zeit,’ Illustrierte aeronatuische teilungen 13 (1909) pp. 441-45.|
|ca. 1640||England||Gascoyn||Winged arms?||
|Robert Hooke ‘An Account of Sieur Bernier’s [sic] Way of Flying,’ Philosophical Collections I.1 (1679) p. 15.|
|ca. 1640||Near Vauxhall, England?||An English boy||Winged chariot made from farming machinery.||Said to have flown the length of a barn. The inventor, the Marquis or Worcester, said that he knew ‘how to make a man fly; which I have tried with a little Boy of ten years old in a Barn, from one end to the other, on an Hay-mow.’||Edward Somerset, Second Marquis of Worcester, A Century of … Inventions (London: 1663) pp. 54-55 (invention p. 77). Although perhaps entirely apocryphal (Worcester was a gross exaggerator), some kind of experiment may have been made.|
|1647-8||Krakow, Poland||Tito Livio Burattini (1617- ca. 1680)||Flying dragon: a complex ornithopter of which at least three working models were made.||Successful indoor flights reported.||Paris, Bibliotheque nationale, MS Lation 11195, ff. 50-61. The projected man-carrying machine appears never to have been built.|
|ca. 1650||Augsburg, Germany||Salomon Idler, of Cannstatt (ca. 1610- ca. 1670), a cobbler||Wings made of iron and feathers.||Dissuaded from flying from a tower, he flew instead from a low roof on to a bridge covered with mattresses. He broke the bridge, killing some hens nesting under it. Later he took his wings to Oberhausen and chopped them to pieces.||J.J. Becher, Närrische Weiszheit und weise Narrheit (Franckfurt: 1682) pp. 164-68; C.J. Wagenseil, Cersuch einer Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg IV.2 (Augsburg: 1822) pp. 485-87.|
|ca. 1650||Scutari (Üsküdar), Turkey||Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi||Wings, like those of an eagle, attached to the arms.||Began with training flights, ‘turning round and round in the air,’; then starting from Galata Tower, flew several kilmeters, landing in Dogoncilar Square, the marketplace of Scutari.||Evliyâ Çelebi (1611-83), Seyahatnâme I (Istanbul: 1896) p. 670. See also Türk Ansiklopedesi XIX (Ankara: 1971) p. 207.|
|17th century||London, England||A Frenchman||Bat-shaped wings of leather, with wooden ribs and iron hinges; no tail.||Managed a safe descent from the roof of St. Paul’s, London. Broke his neck at a second attempt when one of the hinges failed.||Georg Heinrich Büchner, Merkwürdige Beyträge zu dem Weltlauf der Gelehrten III (Langensalza: 1766) pp. 542-66. Account may be fictional.|
|17th century||The Netherlands||Adriaen Baartjens||Improved wings like those of the Frenchmen above, but with the addition of eagle feathers and a tail like that of an eagle.||A successful trial flight from the highest tower in Rotterdam was followed, about a year later, by a trial flight from a tower in The Hague, with a safety line attached. A further free flight ended in a crash that broke his arm.|
|1658-59||Oxford, England||Robert Hooke (1635-1703)||Model bird, powered by ‘springs and wings.’||Hooke says it ‘rais’d and sustain’d it self in the Air.’||Richard Waller, ‘The Life of Dr. Robert Hooke,’ prefaced to The Posthumous Works of Robert Hooke (London: 1705) p. iii-iv.|
|ca. 1660||Nuremburg, Germany||Johann Hautsch (1595-1670), a skilled mechanic and coach builder||Flying carriage?||
|Becher, Närrische Weinszheit p. 164-68. Little is known of the work, which appears to have been carried out late in Hautsch’s life.|
|15 January 1672/3 at 7:00 pm||Regensburg, Germany||Charles Bernouin, a surgeon of Grenoble||Wings, described as a ‘well-tensioned sail.’ The flight was assisted by rockets.||Said to have flown from a high tower. A variant account in Le journal se sçavans (12 December 1678) (ed. of Amsterdam: 1679, p. 455) says that he broke his neck flying at Frankfurt.||Le mercure hollandois (Amsterdam: 1678) pp.98-99. Bernouin (spelled ‘Bernovin’ in the Mercure) had spent eight years in Germany. He was reputed to be good at flying.|
|1678||Sablé, France||Besnier, a locksmith||Hinged wings made of taffeta stretched over frames; flapped alternately using both arms and legs.||Did not claim to be able to rise from the earth, but starting from a height, to be able to sustain himself sufficiently to cross a wide river.||Le journal des sçavans (12 December 1678) (ed. of Amsterdam: 1679, pp.452-455).|
|11 February 1678/79||Venice||
|A flight from a high tower in Venice, on the occasion of the annual banquet of the Duke and Counsel.||Erasmus Francisci, Der Wunder-reiche Uberzug unserer Nider-Welt (Nuremburg: 1680) p. 370.|
|2 April 1680 and again soon afterwards||Moscow, Russia?||A Polish peasant||Wings made of mica.||0/0. Both attempts having failed, the peasant was obliged to refund subsidies he had received; he was also severely beaten.||See Savorgnan di Brazza, La navigazione aerea (Milano: 1910) p. 15, who cites the Russian chronicler Zheliabuzhskii (b. 1638).|
|ca. 1710||Halle, Germany||Johann Gabriel Illing, a locksmith||Artificial eagle, with a wing span of 5 ells (approx. 12 ft.). The pilot was to have sat inside while the feather covered wings were operated by a perpetual motion machine.||Probably never finished.||Johann Gottfried Seidler, Der fliegende Wandersmann oder philosophische Untersuchungen der Fliegekunst (Halle: 1710). Possible fiction elaborated from some factual basis.|
|ca. 1712||Saint Germain, France||Charles Allard (ca. 1650-after 1711)||Wings attached to arms.||An attempt to fly from the Terrasse de Saint Germain to the Bois du Vésinet.||Traditionally said to have been gravely injured in the attempt and to have died from his injuries.|
|ca. 1730||Turin, Italy||Abbé don Falco||Possibly a lighter-than-air machine, like Lana’s?||
|Johann Georg Keyssler, Neüste Reise I (Hannover: 1740) p. 252.|
|1742||Paris, France||The soidisant Marquis de Bacqueville (ca. 1680-1760)||Wings attached to the arms and legs.||A short distance across the Seine, crashing into a boat.||Pierre-Mathias Charbonnet, Eloge prononcé par La Folie devant les habitans des petites-maisons (Avignon: 1761).|
|1750||Wildburg (Württemberg), Germany||Schweikart, a miller||Two large wings of taffeta.||0/0. Stood on a high mountain before many observers and tried to fly over the town in the valley below; fell, smashed the wings, and hurt himself.||Franz Lana und Philipp Lohmeier von fer Luftschiffkunst, trans. anon. (Tübingen: 1784).|
|October 1751||London, England||Andrea Grimaldi||Bird-shaped flying carriage of complex construction; wingspan 22 ft.||0/0. Probably never tested.||The Whitehall Evening-Post (p. 3-5 October 1751) I. Grimaldi, posing as a widely travelled priest, appears to have been a charlatan.|
|ca. 1770||Etampes, France||Canon Pierre Desforges (b. ca. 1723)||Feathered wings.||0/0. The wings were fixed to a peasant, who refused to make the attempt.||Annonces, affiches, nouvelles et avis divers de l’Orléanois 36, 39, 40 (4, 25 September and 2 October 1772) pp. 147-148, 161-62, 165-66.|
|1772||Etampes, France||Desforges||Wickerwork gondola with flapping wings of 19.5 ft. span, and with an overhead canopy of 8 ft X 6 ft.||0/0. Immediate fall from the top of the Tour Guinette (ca. 100 ft.).||See Annonces and Lauren Gaspar Gérard, Essai sur l’art du vol aérien (Paris: 1784) pp. 40-45.|
|August 1781||Emmendingen, Germany||Carl Friedrich Meerwin (1737-1810)||Ornithopter of wood and fabric; wing area 111 ft2; triangular tail; weight 56 lb.||Probably never tested.||Carl Friedrich Meerwein, Die Kunst zu fliegen nach Art der Vögel (Frankfurt und Basel: 1784).|
|Autumn 1781||Saint Germain, France||Jean Pierre Blanchard (1750-1809)||A nacelle 4 ft. X 2 ft., with four wings, each 10 ft. long.||0/0.||Journal de Paris for the period. See also Jules Duhem, Histoire des idÈes aÈronautiques avant Montgolfier (Paris: 1943) pp. 174-76.|
|End of Autumn 1781||Saint Germain, France||Blanchard||Vaisseau volant: a larger machine, similar to the first. Four oval wings, hinged along their central spars, like those of Besnier (see earlier).||Never tried in public.||See Journal de Parisand Duhem, Histoire des idées aéronautiques. There are also four contemporary illustrations that have often been reproduced.|
|End of 1782-1783||Saint Germain, France||Blanchard||A machine for producing vertical lift on the jellyfish jet propulsion principle (cf. Morris’s fictional flying machine of 1751).||Some lift demonstrated in trials.||Duhem, Histoire des idées aéronautiques p.176. Blanchard continued to experiment with his heavier-than-air machines until the success of the hot-air balloon converted him to lighter-than-air craft. See Léon Coutil, Jean-Pierre Blanchard: physicien-aéronaute (Evreux: 1911).|
|Wings based on measurements of a large number of birds.||Said to have glided down from a height of c. 500 yards before falling on to the top of an open well. The wing structure saved him from falling in.||Journal politique de Bruxelles (= part II of Mercure de France) (18 October 1783) p.127.|
|ca. 1700||Rozoy Abbey, France||Canon Oger||Among the several seventeenth century abbeys and priories called Rozoy, the one most likely to have been intended is either Rozoy-le-grand, at Oulchy-le-Château, or Rozoy-le-Bellevalle, near Château-Thierry, both in Aisne. A search of the documents relevant to the abbeys has failed to confirm the story.||Charles H. Gibbs-Smith, Aviation (London: 1970) p. 12.|
|ca. 1700||Péronne, France||A priest||Owing to the destruction during the world wars of many mss relevant to the region, it may never be possible to document the story.||Gibbs-Smith, Aviation p.12.|
|ca. 1765||Romania||A peasant named Kostic||Said to have built a rustic machine covered with bark and based on the idea of the kite. Kostic is credited with some successful hops, including one of about 100 m.||[Anthony Nixon], A True Revelation of the Travels of M. Bush, a Gentleman (London: 1608).|
|ca. 1265||Griffolino d’Arezzo||Griffolino, an alchemist of Arezzo, is placed in Hell by Dante. He says that he jestingly claimed to be able to fly and that he offered to teach the art to Albero of Siena. When he failed to do so, Albero had him burned at the stake. It is doubtful whether there is any substance behind the story.||Dante, Inferno XXIX. pp.109-20.|
|1607||William Bush||Bush invented a ship that could travel through air, on land, and in water. Wheels were used on land, while travelling through the air meant no more than being hauled up ropes attached to a tower.||[Anthony Nixon], A True Revelation of the Travels of M. Bush, a Gentleman (London: 1608).|
|ca. 1650||Saint Joseph of Copertino
|Said to have experienced levitation many times, Saint Joseph is the patron saint of fliers.||See Bibliotheca sanctorum VI, pp.1300-03.|
|17th century||Daniel Mögling||An inventor who is said to have raised a man and lowered him again safely by means of hidden bellows. As Erasmus Francisci says: ‘Even if this is true, to have been lifted and let down again is not to have flown.’||Erasmus Francisci, Der Wunder-reiche Uberzug unserer Nider-Welt (Nuremburg: 1680) p. 370.|
|2 February 1739/40||Robert Cadman||A funambulist showman, Cadman attempted to slide down a cord from near the top of the spire of Saint Mary’s church, Shrewbury, to the other side of the Severn. The inscription on the west wall of the church appears to say that he was trying to fly. He fell and died, aged twenty-eight, when the cord broke as a result of having been overtightened.||H. Owen and J.B. Blakeway, A History of Shrewsbury II (London: 1825) pp. 409-11n.|
MANY THANKS TO REBOOT11 !!
(read below why…)
Reboot is the European meet up for the practical visionaries who are building tomorrow one little step at a time, using new models for creation and organization in a world where the only entry barrier is passion. reboot is two days in June filled with inspiration, good conversations and interesting people.
Reboot is a place for people to come together once a year and reboot their minds with perspective, inspiration and relationships. Starting out in 1998 with a Danish focus the event has been turning more and more international throughout the years. In 2005 reboot turned truly European with 400 participants from more than 22 countries.
Action Grant: Museo Aero Solar
Grant awarded: €450
I’m not sure what sort of support these guys need – but I’m sure they’d welcome contact re. the next flights and getting involved in this lovely art project…when I hear back from them, I’ll update with more info.
Alejandro Uribe, solar balloon master, a good friend of museo aero solar from Medellin…
The actual shape of museo aero solar is in debt with his extraordinary ability in shaping solar balloons. Alejandro was part of museo aero solar during the Medellin stop in 2007.
click the link below for some informations about his activities in solar ballooning: